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看物联网如何影响当今7大关键行业,公司研发部

来源:http://www.tessiz.com 作者:澳门威斯尼人平台登陆 时间:2019-11-05 18:22

原标题:看物联网如何影响当今7大关键行业

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BY MICHAEL E. PORTER AND JAMES E. HEPPELMANN

单一的方式无法定义物联网(IoT)——无论是在系统类型还是在使用案例中,物联网都因行业而异。不同领域之间的物联网大相径庭,为了深入了解物联网对各行业的影响,福布斯(Forbes Insight)与英特尔(Intel)合作,对700名熟悉其单位物联网项目实施的高管进行了调查。

根据埃森哲的最新预测,到2020年,1/4的全球经济会被数字化,但这一预测并没有告诉我们整个故事。因为所有的商业流程都不仅仅在经历数码化-从模拟到数字信号-更进一步是在经历数字化-这一转变将把实体和虚拟混合在一起。

There is a fundamental disconnect between the wealth of digital data available to us and the physical world in which we apply it. While reality is threedimensional, the rich data we now have to inform our decisions and actions remains trapped on two-dimensional pages and screens. This gulf between the real and digital worlds limits our ability to take advantage of the torrent of information and insights produced by billions of smart, connected products (SCPs) worldwide.

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许多组织对此无能为力。事实上,根据Forester数据,只有5%的的公司宣称他们已经熟练利用数字化转型取得了竞争性差异,对制造型企业来说这一挑战更为严峻。从研发到制造到物流,都能看到运营业务在被数字化科技改变。

Augmented reality, a set of technologies that superimposes digital data and images on the physical world, promises to close this gap and release untapped and uniquely human capabilities. Though still in its infancy, AR is poised to enter the mainstream; according to one estimate, spending on AR technology will hit $60 billion in 2020. AR will affect companies in every industry and many other types of organizations, from universities to social enterprises. In the coming months and years, it will transform how we learn, make decisions, and interact with the physical world. It will also change how enterprises serve customers, train employees, design and create products, and manage their value chains, and, ultimately,how they compete.

图片来源于ISTOCK

从研发部门开始,研发数字化转型的四条道路如下:

In this article we describe what AR is, its evolving technology and applications, and why it is so important. Its significance will grow exponentially as SCPs proliferate, because it amplifies their power to create value and reshape competition. AR will become the new interface between humans and machines, bridging the digital and physical worlds. While challenges in deploying it remain, pioneering organizations, such as Amazon, Facebook, General Electric, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Navy, are already implementing AR and seeing a major impact on quality and productivity. Here we provide a road map for how companies should deploy AR and explain the critical choices they will face in integrating it into strategy and operations.

调查显示,在制造业和金融服务业,物联网系统的增长最为显著。这二者中,分别有47%和42%的业内高管表示,过去三年,他们的网络覆盖增长速度超过了10%。

Fully one-quarter of the world’s economy will be digital by 2020, forecasts a new report from Accenture. But that prediction doesn’t tell the whole story. Because increasingly, all business processes will be not only digitized – converted from analog to digital – but also digitalized – transformed in a way that blurs the physical and virtual.

WHAT IS AUGMENTED REALITY?

调查发现,金融服务、医疗保健和制造业是物联网思维的领头羊。多数情况下,他们正将物联网性能与强大的高级分析或人工智能联系起来。接近六成的金融服务业高管(约占58%)表示,他们拥有完善的物联网计划,其次是医疗机构(约占55%)。在制造业和金融服务业,物联网系统的增长最为显著。这二者中,分别有47%和42%的业内高管表示,过去三年,他们的网络覆盖增长速度超过了10%。

Many organizations are struggling to respond. In fact, only five percent of companies say they’ve mastered digital transformation to the point of competitive differentiation, according to Forrester.

Isolated applications of AR have been around for decades, but only recently have the technologies required to unleash its potential become available. At the core, AR transforms volumes of data and analytics into images or animations that are overlaid on the real world. Today most AR applications are delivered through mobile devices, but increasingly delivery will shift to hands-free wearables such as head-mounted displays or smart glasses. Though many people are familiar with simple AR entertainment applications, such as Snapchat filters and the game Pokémon Go, AR is being applied in far more consequential ways in both consumer and business-to-business settings. For example, AR “heads-up” displays that put navigation, collision warning, and other information directly in drivers’ line of sight are now available in dozens of car models. Wearable AR devices for factory workers that superimpose productionassembly or service instructions are being piloted at thousands of companies. AR is supplementing or replacing traditional manuals and training methods at an ever-faster pace.

那么,通信、能源、金融服务、医疗、制造业、零售业和运输业的高管们是如何将物联网“为我所用”的呢?请继续阅读本文。

The challenge is especially acute for manufacturers. From innovation to production to logistics, manufacturers are seeing their operations revolutionized by digital technologies.

More broadly, AR enables a new information-delivery paradigm, which we believe will have a profound impact on how data is structured, managed, and delivered on the internet. Though the web transformed how information is collected, transmitted, and accessed, its model for data storage and delivery—pages on flat screens—has major limits: It requires people to mentally translate 2-D information for use in a 3-D world. That isn’t always easy, as anyone who has used a manual to fix an office copier knows. By superimposing digital information directly on real objects or environments, AR allows people to process the physical and digital simultaneously, eliminating the need to mentally bridge the two. That improves our ability to rapidly and accurately absorb information, make decisions, and execute required tasks quickly and efficiently.

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That starts with research and development. Here are four key ways digitalization is transforming R&D:

AR displays in cars are a vivid illustration of this. Until recently, drivers using GPS navigation had to look at a map on a flat screen and then figure out how to apply it in the real world. To take the correct exit from a busy rotary, for example, the driver needed to shift his or her gaze between the road and the screen and mentally connect the image on the map to the proper turnoff. AR heads-up displays lay navigational images directly over what the driver sees through the windshield. This reduces the mental effort of applying the information, prevents distraction, and minimizes driver error, freeing people to focus on the road. (For more on this, see the sidebar “Enhancing Human Decision Making.”)

通信

1. 终端消费者更自主

科技给予用户更多自由。如今用户已经拥有及时和稳定的信息,包括产品、质量和价格 – 无论是你还是你的竞争对手。过去,如果你已经是某个领域的领导者,竞争者处于劣势。今天,用户们知道你是如何在世界范围和对手们较量的,你过去的市场领导者地位变得无关紧要。

这不光是销售和市场的问题,这也变成研发的问题,因为他们必须用最快的速度对客户改变的需求进行反应,好消息是科技已经有了解决方案。例如,重新设计智能产品,利用了物联网(IoT)传感器,研发人员可以获取使用数据去了解客户的需要,以及产品表现数据,可用来学习以及快速改进产品。

AR is making advances in consumer markets, but its emerging impact on human performance is even greater in industrial settings. Consider how Newport News Shipbuilding, which designs and builds U.S. Navy aircraft carriers, uses AR near the end of its manufacturing process to inspect a ship, marking for removal steel construction structures that are not part of the finished carrier. Historically, engineers had to constantly compare the actual ship with complex 2-D blueprints. But with AR, they can now see the final design superimposed on the ship, which reduces inspection time by 96%—from 36 hours to just 90 minutes. Overall, time savings of 25% or more are typical for manufacturing tasks using AR.

对于电信供应商和其他通信公司来说,移动革命凸显了物联网的转型。在参与调查的通信公司中,约有一半(约占53%)的公司要么在流程中嵌入物联网,要么在关键业务领域中嵌入物联网。在通信公司,最普遍的物联网数据源包括音频设备(约占45%),其次是移动电话(约占42%)。最为普遍的应用是预防性维护(约占44%),其次是努力提高员工生产力(约占40%)。此外,超过三分之一的通信供应商在应用计算机视觉和分析技术以更好地理解、预测客户行为以及资产可行性方面处于领先地位,约38%的受访者表示,他们已经在企业的各部门间实现了可视化分析。

1. End consumers are more empowered

Technology has put consumers in the driver’s seat. Customers now have instant, constant access to information about products, quality, and pricing – for both you and your competitors. In the past, if you had established yourself as a leader in a region, the competition was at a disadvantage. Today, customers know how you stack up against rivals around the world, and your past market leadership is irrelevant. This isn’t just a problem for sales and marketing. It’s also a problem for R&D, which must respond – in as near to real time as possible – to changing customer demands. The good news is that technology is also the solution. For example, by designing smart products that leverage Internet of Things (IoT) sensors, R&D can capture usage data to understand customer desires and capture performance data to learn how to improve products rapidly.

AR’S KEY CAPABILITIES

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2. 透明化重建生产者合作的方式

信息化正在改变制造业内部以及供应商打交道的方式。这对每个部门都适用,尤其是研发部。

当研发新的智能产品时,需要的研发技巧在改变。汽车行业就是个很好的例子。十五年前,汽车开始使用电子化,例如发动机控制系统。今天,几乎所有的汽车研发都可以看到。十年内,电子化会让汽车朝无人驾驶的方向发展。

这会极大地改变汽车的设计。过去,机械工程师领导着汽车设计,电子只不过是点缀。时至今日,软件开发-和之前很不一样的需求和设计周期-开始进入整个流程。在汽车行业以及几乎每个行业,产品设计都在带入新的利益相关者,就必须考虑采用新方法来合作。

As we’ve previously explained (see “How Smart, Connected Products Are Transforming Competition,” HBR, November 2014), the SCPs spreading

能源

2. Transparency is rewriting how manufacturers collaborate

Information access is changing the way manufacturers interact both internally and with suppliers. This is true for every function, but especially for R&D.

As R&D creates more smart products, the skills it requires are changing. The automotive industry is a case in point. Fifteen years ago, cars began to incorporate electronics such as engine-control systems. Today, electronics are where most automotive R&D is happening, and within 10 years, electronics will allow cars to pretty much drive themselves.

That dramatically changes how cars are designed. In the past, mechanical engineers led design efforts, and electronics were merely an add-on. Today, software development – with its very different requirements and design cycles – is integral to the process. In the automotive industry and in virtually every other industry, product design will involve new stakeholders who must work together in new ways.

through our homes, workplaces, and factories allow users to monitor product operations and conditions in real time, control and customize product operations remotely, and optimize product performance using real-time data. And in some cases, intelligence and connectivity allow SCPs to be fully autonomous.

能源公司倾向于将业务分散到偏远地区,如需要持续检测的油气田。能源行业近一半的高管(约占47%)指出,他们要么在选定的职能部门实施了物联网,要么在其业务领域进行了广泛的物联网部署。主要数据源包括机械装置(约占49%)和机器人(约占46%)。能源公司正转向用物联网来监控资产表现(约占45%)、提升客户体验(约占43%)和提高整体效率(约占40%)。有三分之一(约占34%)的受访者表示,他们已经在企业内部深入部署了视觉分析。例如,安装在摄像头上的无人机可以帮助企业监控生产场地及设施的健康和安全,在异常情况成为危险之前就发现它们。

3. 商业模型越来越灵活

过去,产品设计师们为销售产品的公司服务。但越来越多的情况下,公司不在卖产品,而是卖服务。这给研发带来根本性的影响。

一个很好的例子是SAP的中型企业客户生产工业用气体压缩机。前几年,它们意识到顾客要的不是气体压缩机,而是压缩气。然后他们就开始提供给顾客压缩气体,作为一项服务。在这之前,他们设计和生产空气压缩机,并卖给顾客。现在,他们设计和生产空气压缩机,装到顾客的公司,然后赚顾客压缩气的钱。

这一崭新的商业模式会改变研发部是如何安排设计的。第一,需要设计物联网传感器来实时监控压缩机,同时保证预测性维护。第二,需要优化维护的长期性和易用性。公司实现的一个方法是让工程师定期和现场服务人员沟通,第一时间了解机器是怎么运行的。

AR powerfully magnifies the value created by those capabilities. Specifically, it improves how users visualize and therefore access all the new monitoring data, how they receive and follow instructions and guidance on product operations, and even how they interact with and control the products themselves.

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3. Business models are growing more flexible

In the past, product designers worked for companies that sold products. But increasingly, manufacturers will sell not products but services. That affects R&D in fundamental ways.

A good example is a midsize SAP client that makes industrial air compressors. Some years ago it realized customers wanted not air compressors but compressed air. So it began offering compressed air as a service. Before this time, it designed and manufactured air compressors and then sold them to customers. Now, it designs and manufactures air compressors, installs them at customer sites, and then charges for the compressed air customers consume.

That new business model changes how R&D develops products. First, it needs to design in IoT sensors to monitor the compressors in real time and enable predictive maintenance. Second, it needs to optimize longevity and ease of maintenance. One way the company achieves that is by having engineers regularly spend time with field service to see firsthand how equipment is performing.

X-ray vision, revealing internal features that would be difficult to see otherwise. At the medical device company AccuVein, for instance, AR technology converts the heat signature of a patient’s veins into an image that is superimposed on the skin, making the veins easier for clinicians to locate. This dramatically improves the success rate of blood draws and other vascular procedures. AR more than triples the likelihood of a successful needle stick on the first try and reduces the need for “escalations” (calling for assistance, for example) by 45%.

金融服务

4. 商业流程变得越来越面向顾客

事实上,83%采访对象相信数字化正在从供给侧的规模经济效应向建立在顾客和合作伙伴相互关系上的需求侧的经济。公司必须和顾客连接更紧密,这是新的商业模型的需要。再来看空气压缩机的例子,公司并没有投资在资本密集型的空气压缩机上,而仅仅是签订压缩气的合同。合同的最后,如果切换到更便宜的合同会要求点补偿。同样的模式将会运用在好多其他行业的产品上。

Bosch Rexroth, a global provider of power units and controls used in manufacturing, uses an AR-enhanced visualization to demonstrate the design and capabilities of its smart, connected CytroPac hydraulic power unit. The AR application allows customers to see 3-D representations of the unit’s internal pump and cooling options in multiple configurations and how subsystems fit together.

金融服务机构具有高度安全意识,因此越来越依赖网络摄像头和其他视觉传感器,以确保其设施的可行性。如上所述,金融服务在物联网部署方面处于领先地位,58%的调查对象具有一定程度的能力。在视觉分析采用方面,这一领域的公司也遥遥领先——51%的公司报告说,他们已经开发并实现了将摄像头和视觉传感器连接到人工智能和分析系统上的能力。对金融公司来说,手机是首选的终端设备(约51%的受访者选择了手机),还有摄像头和传感器(约占48%)。虽然金融公司在物联网工作中有多个目标,但显然首先要解决的是扩大网络连通性(约占31%),并将物联网作为提高安全性的工具(约占30%)。

4. Business processes are becoming more customer centric

In fact, 83% of executives believe digitalization is driving a shift from supply-side economies of scale to demand-side economies based on interconnection with customers and partners, according to the Accenture report.

Manufacturers will have to be more connected to customers, because new business models will demand it. Take the air compressor customer. It hasn’t invested in a capital-intensive air compressor; it’s simply contracted for compressed air. At the end of the contract, there’s little disincentive to switching to a more attractive contract. The same will be true for many products across many industries.

这将如何改变研发呢?为了保持核心差异,设计周期必将要加速。例如,很多汽车制造商只是当顾客来店里维修时更新电子类。Tesla与众不同,他们直接把新指标和功能做定期软件更新。如果竞争者也开始学的话,不要被吓着了。

总而言之,数字化经济起于顾客,终于顾客。顾客更有权力,所以公司必须变得更面向客户,没有哪个部门比研发部更合适的了。

How does that change R&D? Design cycles will have to accelerate to maintain competitive differentiation. For example, most carmakers update a car’s electronics only if the customer happens to come in for service. Tesla has upped the ante by sending new features and functions directly to the consumer through regular software updates. Don’t be surprised if its competitors start to follow.

Ultimately, the digital economy begins and ends with the customer. Customers are more empowered, so companies need to become more customer-centric. And nowhere is that more true than in R&D.

For more insight on the new customer-centric digital economy, see Customer Relationship Status: It’s Complicated.

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Instruct and guide. AR is already redefining instruction, training, and coaching. These critical functions, which improve workforce productivity, are inherently costly and labor-intensive and often deliver uneven results. Written instructions for assembly tasks, for instance, are frequently hard and timeconsuming to follow. Standard instructional videos aren’t interactive and can’t adapt to individual learning needs. In-person training is expensive and requires students and teachers to meet at a common site, sometimes repeatedly. And if the equipment about which students are being taught isn’t available, they may need extra training to transfer what they’ve learned to a real-world context.

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AR addresses those issues by providing real-time, on-site, step-by-step visual guidance on tasks such as product assembly, machine operation, and warehouse picking. Complicated 2-D schematic representations of a procedure in a manual, for example, become interactive 3-D holograms that walk the user through the necessary processes. Little is left to the imagination or interpretation.

医疗保健

At Boeing, AR training has had a dramatic impact on the productivity and quality of complex aircraft manufacturing procedures. In one Boeing study, AR was used to guide trainees through the 50 steps required to assemble an aircraft wing section involving 30 parts. With the help of AR, trainees completed the work in 35% less time than trainees using traditional 2-D drawings and documentation. And the number of trainees with little or no experience who could perform the operation correctly the first time increased by 90%.

提到医疗保健,顾客担忧尤甚,他们希望不仅在病榻前受到照顾,而且在候诊室、急救室和商务办公室都能获得相应体验。当前,医疗机构在物联网方面也走在了前沿,55%的医疗机构已经部署了相当完善的设备。在医疗领域,音频设备和移动电话是最重要的使用中设备,46%的行业受访者都提到了这一点。医护监管是最普遍的用例(约占41%),还有设备监控和增强客户体验感(约占38%)。对大多数受访者来说(约占57%),他们还是采用视觉分析来提高客户服务和护理病患的水平。

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AR-enabled devices can also transmit what an on-site user is seeing to a remote expert, who can respond with immediate guidance. In effect, this instantly puts the expert at the user’s side, regardless of location. This capability not only improves worker performance but substantially reduces costs—as Lee Company, which sells and services building systems, has discovered. It uses AR to help its field technicians with installations and repairs. A remote expert can see what the tech is viewing through his or her AR device, guide the tech through the work to be done, and even annotate the tech’s view with instructions. Getting expert support from a central location in real time has increased Lee’s tech utilization dramatically. And, by reducing the number of repeat visits, Lee saves more than $500 per technician per month in labor and travel costs. The company calculates a return of $20 on every dollar invested in AR.

制造业

Interact. Traditionally, people have used physical controls such as buttons, knobs, and, more recently, built-in touchscreens to interact with products. With the rise of SCPs, apps on mobile devices have increasingly replaced physical controls and allowed users to operate products remotely.

制造商比其他行业的公司更依赖于重型机械来进行生产,因此,他们对了解机器性能有着浓厚的兴趣。制造业组织有一系列的机会——通过计算机视觉来管理和跟踪商品的运动,与人工智能增强系统相联系,可以在事件发生前预测甚至补救。但这不仅仅是管理机器的问题。总体而言,与其他行业集团相比,制造商正经历着物联网带来的最大转变。51%的制造业高管强烈赞同物联网正在为他们的组织开辟新的业务领域。此外,29%的制造业高管报告称,他们的物联网部署使他们能够提供新产品或服务,通信公司的这一比例为29%。大多数制造商(约占51%)声称他们所选择的业务领域是由物联网支持的,或者表示他们已经在企业广泛地部署了物联网。52%的制造商表示,他们也具备可视化分析能力,能够对资产和产品进行实时监控。移动电话和计算机系统是制造商物联网数据的主要来源(分别约占48%和47%),这一领域的主要用例是预防性维护(约占51%)和提高生产率(约占49%)。

AR takes the user interface to a whole new level. A virtual control panel can be superimposed directly on the product and operated using an AR  eadset, hand gestures, and voice commands. Soon, users wearing smart glasses will be able to simply gaze at or point to a product to activate a virtual user interface and operate it. A worker wearing smart glasses, for instance, will be able to walk a line of factory machines, see their performance parameters, and adjust each machine without physically touching it.

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The interact capability of AR is still nascent in commercial products but is revolutionary. Reality Editor, an AR app developed by the Fluid Interfaces group at MIT’s Media Lab, provides a glimpse of how it is rapidly evolving. Reality Editor makes it easy to add an interactive AR experience to any SCP. With it, people can point a smartphone or a tablet at an SCP (or, eventually, look at it through smart glasses), “see” its digital interfaces and the capabilities that can be programmed, and link those capabilities to hand gestures or voice commands or even to another smart product. For example, Reality Editor can allow a user to see a smart light bulb’s controls for color and intensity and set up voice commands like “bright” and “mood” to activate them. Or different settings of the bulb can be linked to buttons on a smart light switch the user can place anywhere that’s convenient.

零售业

The technologies underpinning these capabilities are still emerging, but the accuracy of voice commands in noisy environments is improving, and advances in gesture and gaze tracking have been rapid. GE has already tested the use of voice commands in AR experiences that enable factory workers to perform complex wiring processes in wind turbines—and has achieved a 34% increase in productivity.

在零售中,销售上的情况并不局限于销售——顾客的行为和反应被研究、评估和衍化。在调查中,有一半的零售业高管(约占51%)表示,他们正在积极部署物联网工作——要么跨部门部署,要么跨企业广泛部署。大多数人(约占53%)也表示,在一定程度上使用了视觉分析,从而能够更好地理解客户的偏好和行为。最著名的物联网数据源包括计算机系统(约占51%)和传感器(约占47%)。对于零售组织,主要用例是启用业务转换(约占44%)和提供增强虚拟现实的培训(约占43%)。

COMBINING AR AND VIRTUAL REALITY

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AR’s well-known cousin, virtual reality, is a complementary but distinct technology. While AR superimposes digital information on the physical world, VR replaces physical reality with a computer-generated environment. Though VR is used mostly for entertainment applications, it can also replicate physical settings for training purposes. It is especially useful when the settings involved are hazardous or remote. Or, if the machinery required for raining is not available, VR can immerse technicians in a virtual environment using holograms of the equipment. So when needed, VR adds a fourth apability—simulate—to AR’s core capabilities of visualize, instruct, and interact.

交通

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交通涉及运输和物流,物联网系统在管理这些性能方面发挥着作用。在交通相关企业的调查中,有一半的高管(约占47%)表示,他们要么正在进行部门级的物联网起步工作,要么已经在企业内部实现了物联网技术。最重要的用例是提高生产率(约占40%)以及物流监视和路线规划(约占40%)。近一半的运输公司(约占46%)在物联网工作中加入了某种程度的视觉分析,例如,可以在铁路轨道上安装摄像头和传感器,以监测车轮总成的磨损或货车厢的异常情况。

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正如以上案例所示,每个行业都有从物联网中获益的可能。然而,如何洞悉这些技术的潜力,如何在公司和各自行业中实现技术的最大效益,则取决于高管们,善策者事竟成!

AR will be far more widely applied in business than VR will. But in some circumstances, combining AR and VR will allow users to transcend distance (by simulating faraway locations), transcend time (by reproducing historical contexts or simulating possible future situations), and transcend scale (by allowing users to engage with environments that are either too small or too big to experience directly). What’s more, bringing people together in shared virtual environments can enhance comprehension, teamwork, communication, and decision making.

附英语原文如下

AR will be far more widely applied in business than VR will. But in some circumstances, combining AR and VR will allow users to transcend distance (by simulating faraway locations), transcend time (by reproducing historical contexts or simulating possible future situations), and transcend scale (by allowing users to engage with environments that are either too small or too big to experience directly). What’s more, bringing people together in shared virtual environments can enhance comprehension, teamwork, communication, and decision making.

How IoT Is Impacting 7 Key Industries Today

Ford, for example, is using VR to create a virtual workshop where geographically dispersed engineers can collaborate in real time on holograms of vehicle prototypes. Participants can walk around and go inside these life-size 3-D holograms, working out how to refine design details such as the position of the steering wheel, the angle of the dashboard, and the location of instruments and controls without having to build an expensive physical prototype and get everyone to one location to examine it.

There is no single way to describe the Internet of Things (IoT)—it varies by industry, both in types of systems and in use cases. IoT in one sector is different from IoT in another. To better understand just how IoT is impacting a variety of industries, Forbes Insights, in partnership with Intel, conducted a survey of 700 executives familiar with their organization's implementation of IoT programs.

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is going a step further by combining AR instructions with VR simulations to train personnel in responding to emergency situations such as explosions. This reduces costs and—in cases in which training in real environments would be dangerous—risk. The energy multinational BP overlays AR training procedures on VR simulations that replicate specific drilling conditions, like temperature, pressure, topography, and ocean currents, and that instruct teams on operations and help them practice coordinated emergency responses to disasters without high costs or risk.

Growth in IoT systems has been most pronounced within the manufacturing and financial services sectors, with 47% and 42% of executives in these sectors, respectively, reporting growth in their networks exceeding 10% over the past three years.

澳门威斯尼人平台登陆,HOW AR CREATES VALUE

As the survey found, financial services, healthcare and manufacturing are leaders in IoT thinking, and in many cases, are connecting IoT capabilities with powerful advanced analytics or artificial intelligence. Close to six in 10 executives in the financial services sector, 58%, report having well-developed IoT initiatives, followed by healthcare organizations (55%). Growth in IoT systems has been most pronounced within the manufacturing and financial services sectors, with 47% and 42% of executives in these sectors, respectively, reporting growth in their networks exceeding 10% over the past three years.

AR creates business value in two broad ways: first, by becoming part of products themselves, and second, by improving performance across the value chain—in product development, manufacturing, marketing, service, and numerous other areas.

Keep reading to find out more about how executives in communications, energy, financial services, healthcare, manufacturing, retail and transportation are leveraging IoT.

AR as a product feature. The capabilities of AR play into the growing design focus on creating better user interfaces and ergonomics. The way products convey important operational and safety information to users has increasingly become a point of differentiation (consider how mobile apps have supplemented or replaced embedded screens in products like Sonos audio players). AR is poised to rapidly improve such interfaces.

1.Communications: For telecommunications providers and other communications companies, the mobile revolution is underscoring the shift to IoT. About half of the communications companies represented in the survey, 53%, either have IoT embedded into their processes or have it in key business areas. In communications companies, the most prevalent IoT data sources include audio devices (45%), followed by mobile phones (42%). The most prevalent application is preventive maintenance (44%), followed by efforts to increase employee productivity (40%). In addition, more than one-third of communications providers are in the forefront of applying approaches with computer vision and analytics to better understand and predict customer behavior, as well as the viability of assets. In total, 38% report they have implemented visual analytics across parts of their enterprises.

Dedicated AR heads-up displays, which have only recently been incorporated into automobiles, have been a key feature in elite military products, such as fighter jets, for years and have been adopted in commercial aircraft as well. These types of displays are too expensive and bulky to ntegrate into most products, but wearables such as smart glasses are a breakthrough interface with wide-ranging implications for all manufacturers. With mart glasses, a user can see an AR display on any product enabled to communicate with them.

2.Energy: Energy companies tend to have operations spread across remote locations such as oil and gas fields, which require continuous monitoring. Close to half of executives in the energy sector, 47%, indicate they either have implemented IoT across selected functions/business areas or have extensive IoT deployments. Leading data sources include machinery (49%) and robots (46%). Energy companies are turning to IoT to monitor asset performance (45%), enhance their customers’ experience (43%) and boost overall efficiency (40%). About one-third, 34%, report they have deployed visual analytics deeply within their enterprises. Camera-mounted drones, for instance, can help companies monitor the health and safety of production fields and facilities, spotting anomalies before they become a hazard.

If you view a kitchen oven through smart glasses, for example, you might see a virtual display that shows the baking temperature, the minutes remaining on the timer, and the recipe you are following. If you approach your car, an AR display might show you that it is locked, that the fuel tank is nearly full, and that the left-rear tire’s pressure is low.

3.Financial Services: Financial services organizations are highly security conscious, and therefore increasingly rely on networks of cameras and other visual sensors to ensure the viability of their facilities. As noted above, financial services leads the way in IoT deployment, with 58% of survey respondents having some degree of capabilities. Companies in this sector are also well ahead in terms of visual analytics adoption—51% report they have developed and implemented capabilities employing cameras and visual sensors connected to AI and analytics systems. Mobile phones are the leading endpoint choice for financial companies (cited by 51%), along with cameras and sensors (48%). While financial firms have multiple goals in their IoT efforts, most pronounced is the need to expand the connectivity of their networks (31%), along with employing IoT as vehicle for greater security (30%).

Because an AR user interface is purely software based and delivered via the cloud, it can be personalized and can continually evolve. The incremental cost of providing such an interface is low, and manufacturers also stand to save considerable amounts when traditional buttons, switches, and dials are removed. Every product manufacturer needs to carefully consider the disruptive impact that this nextgeneration interface may have on its offering and competitive positioning.

4.Healthcare: Within healthcare, there is concern about the experiences customers receive not only at bedsides, but also in waiting rooms, emergency rooms and business offices. Healthcare organizations are also leading the way with IoT, with 55% having fairly robust deployments in place. In healthcare, audio devices and mobile phones are the most essential devices in use, mentioned by 46% of respondents in the sector. Employee monitoring is the most prevalent use case (41%), along with monitoring facilities and enhancing customer experiences (each cited by 38%). The majority, 57%, also employ visual analytics to improve their levels of customer service and patient care.

AR can already be seen across the value chain, but they are more advanced in some areas than in others. In general, visualize and instruct/guide applications are now having the greatest impact on companies’ operations, while the interact capability is still emerging and in pilot testing.

5.Manufacturing: Manufacturers, more than companies in other industries, rely on heavy machinery to produce products and therefore have a deep interest in understanding the performance of these machines. Manufacturing organizations have a range of opportunities—through computer vision to manage and track the movement of goods, linked to artificial intelligence-enhanced systems that can predict, and even remediate, events before they happen.But there’s more to the story than managing machines. Overall, compared with other industry groups, manufacturers are seeing the greatest transitions from IoT. A majority of executives in manufacturing firms, 51%, “strongly agree” that IoT is opening up new lines of business for their organizations. In addition, 29% of manufacturing executives report their IoT efforts have enabled them to offer new products or services, along with 29% of those with communications companies. A majority of manufacturers, 51%, state either that selected business areas are supported by IoT or that they have deployed it extensively across their organizations. A majority, 52%, of manufacturers indicate they have visual analytics capabilities in place as well, enabling the real-time monitoring of assets and products. Mobile phones and computer systems are the main sources of IoT data for manufacturers (cited respectively by 48% and 47%), and the leading use cases in this sector are preventive maintenance (51%) and increasing productivity (49%).

Product development. Though engineers have been using computeraided design (CAD) capabilities to create 3-D models for 30 years, they have been limited to interacting with those models through 2-D windows on their computer screens, which makes it harder for them to fully conceptualize designs. AR allows 3-D models to be superimposed on the physical world as holograms, enhancing engineers’ ability to evaluate and improve designs. For example, a life-size 3-D hologram of a construction machine can be positioned on the ground, and engineers can walk around it, peer under and over it, and even go inside it to fully appreciate the sight lines and ergonomics of its design at full scale in its intended setting.

6.Retail: In retail, what happens on the sales floor doesn’t stay on the sales floor—customer behavior and reactions are studied, evaluated and evolved. Half of the retail executives in the survey, 51%, report having robust IoT efforts underway—either deployed across departments or extensively across their enterprises. A majority, 53%, also report employing visual analytics to some degree, enabling a greater understanding of customer preferences and behavior. The most prominent IoT data sources include computer systems (51%) and sensors (47%). For retail organizations, the main use cases are enabling business transformation (44%) and providing training enhanced by augmented virtual reality (43%).

AR also lets engineers superimpose CAD models on physical prototypes to compare how well they match. Volkswagen is using this technique—which makes any difference between the latest design and the prototype visually obvious—to check alignment in digital design reviews. This improves the accuracy of the quality assurance process, in which engineers previously had to painstakingly compare 2-D drawings with prototypes, and makes it five to 10 times faster.

7.Transportation: Transportation is about movement and logistics, and IoT systems are playing a role in managing these capabilities. About half of the executives in the survey in transportation-related organizations, 47%, report having either departmental-level IoT efforts underway or implementations that reach across their enterprises. The most important use cases are increasing productivity (40%) as well as logistics monitoring and routing (40%). Close to half of transportation companies, 46%, have some level of visual analytics incorporated into their IoT efforts. Cameras and sensors, for example, may be placed along railroad tracks to monitor wear and tear on wheel assemblies or anomalies with freight cars.

We expect that in the near future AR enabled devices such as phones and smart glasses, with their embedded cameras, accelerometers, GPS, and other sensors, will increasingly inform product design by exposing when, where, and how users actually interact with the product—how often a certain repair sequence is initiated, for example. In this way the AR interface will become an important source of data.

As these examples demonstrate, every industry has the potential to reap the benefits from IoT. Yet it’s up to executives to recognize the potential of these technologies and determine how best to leverage them within their companies and respective industries. Those who do will certainly reap the rewards.

Manufacturing. In manufacturing, processes are often complex, requiring hundreds or even thousands of steps, and mistakes are costly. As we’ve learned, AR can deliver just the right information the moment it’s needed to factory workers on assembly lines, reducing errors, enhancing efficiency, and improving productivity.

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In factories, AR can also capture information from automation and control systems, secondary sensors, and asset management systems and make visible important monitoring and diagnostic data about each machine or process. Seeing information such as efficiency and defect rates in context helps maintenance technicians understand problems and prompts factory workers to do proactive maintenance that may prevent costly downtime. Iconics, which specializes in automation software for factories and buildings, has begun to integrate AR into its products’ user interfaces. By attaching relevant information to the physical location where it will be best observed and understood, the AR interfaces enable more-efficient monitoring of machines and processes.

责任编辑:

Logistics. Warehouse operations are estimated to account for about 20% of all logistics costs, while picking items from shelves represents up to 5% of warehouse costs. In most warehouses, workers still perform this task by consulting a paper list of things to collect and then searching for them. This method is slow and error-prone.

The logistics giant DHL and a growing number of other companies are using AR to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the picking process. AR instructions direct workers to the location of each product to be pulled and then suggest the best route to the next product. At DHL this approach has led to fewer errors, more-engaged workers, and productivity gains of 25%. The company is now rolling out AR-guided picking globally and testing how AR can enhance other types of warehouse operations, such as optimizing the position of goods and machines in layouts. Intel is also using AR in warehouses and has achieved a 29% reduction in picking time, with error rates falling to near zero. And the AR application is allowing new Intel workers to immediately achieve picking speeds 15% faster than those of workers who’ve had only traditional training.

Marketing and sales. AR is redefining the concept of showrooms and product demonstrations and transforming the customer experience. When customers can see virtually how products will look or function in a real setting before buying them, they have more-accurate expectations, more confidence about their purchase decisions, and greater product satisfaction. Down the road, AR may even reduce the need for brick-and-mortar stores and showrooms altogether. When products can be configured with different features and options—which can make them difficult and costly to stock—AR is a particularly valuable marketing tool.

The construction products company AZEK, for instance, uses AR to show contractors and consumers how its decking and paver products look in various colors and arrangements. Customers can also see the simulations in context: If you look at a house through a phone or a tablet, the AR app can add a deck onto it. The experience reduces any uncertainty customers might feel about their choices and shortens the sales cycle.

In e-commerce, AR applications are allowing online shoppers to download holograms of products. Wayfair and IKEA both offer libraries with thousands of 3-D product images and apps that integrate them into a view of an actual room, enabling customers to see how furniture and decor will look in their homes. IKEA also uses its app to collect important data about product preferences in different regions.

After-sales service. This is a function where AR shows huge potential to unlock the value-creating capabilities of SCPs. AR assists technicians serving customers in the field in much the same way it helps workers in factories: by showing predictive analytics data generated by the product, visually guiding them through repairs in real time, and connecting them with remote experts who can help optimize procedures. For example, an AR dashboard might reveal to a field technician that a specific machine part will most likely fail within a month, allowing the tech to preempt a problem for the customer by replacing it now. At KPN, a European telecommunications service provider, field engineers conducting remote or on-site repairs use AR smart glasses to see a product’s service-history data, diagnostics, and location-based information dashboards. These AR displays help them make better decisions about demand through AR. AR allows instruction to be tailored to a particular worker’s experience or to reflect the prevalence of particular errors. For example, if someone repeatedly makes the same kind of mistake, he can be required to use AR support until his work quality improves. At some companies, AR has reduced the training time for new employees in certain kinds of work to nearly zero and lowered the skill requirements for new hires. This is especially advantageous for the package delivery company DHL, which faces surges in demand during peak seasons and is heavily dependent on the effective hiring and training of temporary workers. By providing real-time training and hands-on guidance on navigating warehouses and properly packing and sorting materials, AR has reduced how to resolve issues, producing an 11% reduction in overall costs for service teams, a 17% decrease in work-error rates, and higher repair quality.

 Xerox used AR to connect field engineers with experts instead of providing service manuals and telephone support. First-time fix rates increased by 67%, and the engineers’ efficiency jumped by 20%. Meanwhile, the average time it took to resolve problems dropped by two hours, so staffing needs fell. Now Xerox is using AR to connect remote technical experts directly with customers. This has increased by 76% the rate at which technical problems are resolved by customers without any on-site help, cutting travel costs for Xerox and minimizing downtime for customers. Perhaps not surprisingly, Xerox has seen its customer satisfaction rates rise to 95%.

Human resources. Early AR adopters like DHL, the U.S. Navy, and Boeing have already discovered the power of delivering step-by-step visual worker training on DHL’s need for traditional instructors and increased the onboarding speed for new employees.

AR AND STRATEGY

AR will have a widespread impact on how companies compete. As we’ve explained in our previous HBR articles, SCPs are changing the structure of almost all industries as well as the nature of competition within them—often expanding industry boundaries in the process. SCPs give rise to new strategic choices for manufacturers, ranging from what functionality to pursue and how to manage data rights and security, to whether to expand a company’s scope of products and compete in smart systems. The increasing penetration of AR, along with its power as the human interface with SCP technologies, raises some new strategic questions. While the answers will reflect each company’s business and unique circumstances, AR will become more and more integral to every firm’s strategy.

Here are the essential questions companies face:

  1. What is the range of AR opportunities in the industry, and in what sequence should they be pursued? Companies must weigh AR’s potential impact on customers, product capabilities, and the value chain.

  2. How will AR reinforce a company’s product differentiation? AR opens up multiple differentiation paths. It can create companion experiences that expand the capabilities of products, give customers more information, and increase product loyalty. AR interfaces that enhance products’ functionality or ease of use can be big differentiators, as can those that substantially improve product support, service, and uptime. And AR’s capacity to provide new kinds of feedback on how customers use products can help companies uncover further opportunities for product differentiation. The right differentiation path will depend on a company’s existing strategy; what competitors are doing; and the pace of technology advances, especially in hardware.

  3. Where will AR have the greatest impact on cost reduction? AR enables new efficiencies that every firm must explore.As we’ve noted, it can significantly lower the cost of training, service, assembly, design, and other parts of the value chain. It can also substantially cut manufacturing costs by reducing the need for physical interfaces. Each company will need to prioritize AR-driven cost-reduction efforts in a way that’s consistent with its strategic positioning. Firms with sophisticated products will need to capitalize on AR’s superior and low-cost interface, while many commodity producers will focus on operational efficiencies across the value chain. In consumer industries and retail, marketing-related visualize applications are the most likely starting point. In manufacturing, instruct applications are achieving the most immediate payoff by addressing inefficiencies in engineering, production, and service. And AR’s interact capability, though still emerging, will be important across all industries with products that have customization and complex control capabilities.

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  1. Should the company make AR design and deployment a core strength, or will outsourcing or partnering be sufficient? Many firms are scrambling to access the digital talent needed for AR development, which is in short supply. One skill in great demand is user experience or user interface (UX/UI) design. It’s critical to present 3-D digital information in ways that make it easy to absorb and act on; companies want to avoid making a stunning but unhelpful AR experience that defeats its core purpose. Effective AR experiences also require the right content, so people who know how to create and manage it—another novel skill—are crucial too. Digital modeling capabilities and knowledge of how to apply them in AR applications are key as well. Over time we expect companies to create teams dedicated to AR, just as they set up such teams to build and run websites in the 1990s and 2000s. Dedicated teams will be needed to establish the infrastructure that will allow this new medium to flourish and to develop and maintain the AR content. Many firms have started to build AR skills in-house, but few have mastered them yet. Whether to hire and train AR employees or partner with specialty software and services companies is an open question for many. Some companies have no choice but to treat AR talent as a strategic asset and invest in acquiring and developing it, given AR’s potentially large impact on competition in their business. However, if AR is important but not essential to competitive advantage, firms can partner with specialty software and services companies to leverage outside talent and technology.

The challenges, time, and cost involved in building the full set of AR technologies we have described are significant, and specialization always emerges in each component. In the early stages of AR, the number of technology and service suppliers has been limited, and companies have built internal capabilities. However, best-ofbreed AR vendors with turnkey solutions are starting to appear, and it will become increasingly difficult for in-house efforts to keep up with them.

  1. How will AR change communications with stakeholders? AR complements existing print and 2-D digital communication approaches and in some cases can replace them altogether. Yet we see AR as much more than just another communication channel. It is a fundamentally new means of engaging with people. Just consider the novel way it helps people absorb and act on information and instructions. The web, which began as a way to share technical reports, ultimately transformed business, education, and social interaction. We expect that AR will do the same thing for communication—changing it in ways far beyond what we can envision today. Companies will need to think creatively about how they can use this nascent channel.

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DEPLOYING AR

AR applications are already being piloted and deployed in products and across the value chain, and their number and breadth will only grow. Every company needs an implementation road map that lays out how the organization will start to capture the benefits of AR in its business while building the capabilities needed to expand its use. When determining the sequence and pace of adoption, companies must consider both the technical challenges and the organizational skills involved, which vary from context to context. Specifically, organizations need to address five key questions:

  1. Which development capabilities will be required? Some AR experiences involve more complexity than others.Experiences that allow people to visualize products in different configurations or settings—like those created by IKEA, Wayfair, and AZEK—are a relatively easy place for companies to start. Consumers just need to be encouraged to download and launch AR apps, and only a mobile device is needed to use them.

Instruction applications, like the ones Boeing and GE employ in manufacturing, are more difficult to build and use. They require the capacity to develop and maintain dynamic 3-D digital content and often benefit greatly from the use of headmounted displays or smart glasses, which are still in the early stages of development. Apps that produce interactive experiences, which create significant value for both consumers and businesses, are the most challenging to develop. They also involve less-mature technology, such as voice or gesture recognition, and the need to integrate with software that controls SCPs. Most companies will start with static visualizations of 3-D models, but they should build the capability to move quickly into dynamic instructional experiences that have greater strategic impact.

  1. How should organizations create digital content? Every AR experience, from the least to the most sophisticated, requires content. In some cases it’s possible to repurpose existing digital content, such as product designs. Over time, however, more-complex, dynamic contextual experiences must be built from scratch, which requires specialized expertise. Simple applications, such as an ARenhanced furniture catalog, may need only basic product representations. More-sophisticated business instruction applications, however, such as those used for machine repair, will require accurate and highly detailed digital product representations. Companies can create these by adapting CAD models used in product development or by using digitization techniques such as 3-D scanning. The most sophisticated AR experiences also need to tap real-time data streams from enterprise business systems, SCPs, or external data sources and integrate them into the content. To prepare for broadening the AR portfolio, companies should take an inventory of existing 3-D digital assets in CAD and elsewhere and invest in digital modeling capabilities.

  2. How will AR applications recognize the physical environment? To accurately superimpose digital information on the physical world, AR technologies must recognize what they’re looking at. The simplest approach is to determine the location of the AR device using, say, GPS and show relevant information for that location without anchoring it to a specific object. This is known as an “unregistered” AR experience. Vehicle heads-up navigation displays typically work this way. Higher-value “registered” experiences anchor information to specific objects. They can do this through markers, such as bar codes, logos, or labels, which are placed on the objects and scanned by the user with an AR device. A more powerful approach, however, uses technology that recognizes objects by comparing their shape to a catalog of 3-D models. This allows a maintenance technician, for example, to instantly recognize and interact with any type of equipment he or she is responsible  for maintaining and to do so from any angle. While markers are a good starting point, shape-recognition technologies are advancing quickly, and organizations will need the capability to use them to tap into many of the highest-value AR applications.

  3. What AR hardware is required? AR experiences aimed at broad consumer audiences have typically been designed for smartphones, taking advantage of their simplicity and ubiquity. For moresophisticated experiences, companies use tablets, which offer larger screens, better graphics, and greater processing power. Since tablet penetration is lower, companies will often provide them to users. For certain high-value applications—notably those in aircraft and automobiles—manufacturers are building dedicated AR heads-up displays into their products—a costly approach.

Eventually, however, most AR applications for service, manufacturing, and even product interfaces will require head-mounted displays that free users’hands. This technology is currently both immature and expensive, but we expect that affordable smart glasses will become widely available in the next few years and will play a major part in releasing AR’s full power. Microsoft, Google, and Apple now offer AR technologies optimized for their own devices. However, most organizations should take a cross-platform approach that allows AR experiences to be deployed across multiple brands of phones and tablets and should make sure they’re ready for smart glasses when they arrive.

  1. Should you use a softwaredevelopment or a content-publishing model? Many early AR experiences have been delivered through stand-alone software applications that are downloaded, complete with digital content, to a phone or a tablet. This approach creates reliable, high-resolution experiences and allows organizations to make apps that don’t require internet connectivity. The problem with this model is that any change to the AR experience requires software developers to rewrite the app, which can create expensive bottlenecks.

An emerging alternative uses commercial AR-publishing software to create AR content and host it in the cloud. The AR experience can then be downloaded on demand using a general-purpose app running on an AR device. Like website content, the AR content can be updated or supplemented without changing the software itself—an important benefit when large amounts of information and frequent content changes are involved.The content-publishing model will become common as more and more machines and products include real-time AR interaction and control. A content-publishing capability is essential to scaling AR up across the organization.

THE BROADER IMPACT

The digital revolution, with its SCPs and explosion of data, is unleashing productivity and unlocking value across the economy. Increasingly, the constraint is not a lack of data and knowledge but how to assimilate and act on them—in other words, the interface with humans. AR is emerging as a leading solution to this challenge.

At the same time, the rapid evolution of machine learning and automation is raising serious concerns about human opportunity. Will there be enough jobs for everyone, especially for people without advanced education and knowledge? In a world of artificial intelligence and robots, will humans become obsolete?

It is easy to conclude that new technology diminishes human opportunity. Yet new inventions have been replacing human labor for centuries, and they have led to growth in employment, not a decline. Technology has dramatically increased our productivity and our standard of living It has given rise to new kinds of offerings that meet new needs and require new types of workers. Many of today’s jobs involve products and services that did not even exist a hundred years ago. A lesson of history is that today’s digital revolution will generate new waves of innovation and new kinds of work that we cannot yet imagine.

The role of humans in this future is misunderstood. People have unique strengths that machines and algorithms will not replicate anytime soon. We have sophisticated motor skills—well beyond what robots are capable of today—that allow us to do the subtle manipulation that’s needed in, say, replacing a machine part or wiring a turbine. Even relatively less skilled work, such as drawing blood, pruning a garden, or repairing a flat tire, requires human dexterity and defies automation. Human cognition adapts instantaneously to novel situations; people easily adjust the way they interpret information, solve problems, exercise judgment, and take action to suit their circumstances. Humans have flexibility, imagination, intuition, and creative ability that for the foreseeable future are beyond the reach of any machine.

While the advances in artificial intelligence and robotics are impressive, we believe that combining the capabilities of machines with humans’ distinctive strengths will lead to far greater productivity and more value creation than either could generate alone. What’s needed to realize this opportunity is a powerful human interface that bridges the gap between the digital and physical worlds. We see AR as a historic innovation that provides this. It helps humans enhance their own capabilities by taking full advantage of new digital knowledge and machine capabilities. It will profoundly change training and skill development, allowing people to perform sophisticated work without protracted and expensive conventional instruction—a model that is inaccessible to so many today. AR, then, enables people to better tap into the digital revolution and all it has to offer.

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